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mitral regurgitation, MR, mitral incompetence, mitral insufficiency, myxomatous degeneration, ruptured chordae tendineae, collagen-vascular disease, collagen vascular disease, rheumatic fever, myxomatous mitral valve, Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, acute mitral valve regurgitation, mitral valve regurgitation, mitral valve incompetence, mitral valve insufficiency, cardiogenic shock, mitral valve disease, mitral valvular abnormality, prosthetic valve failure, perforated mitral valve leaflet, perforated mitral valve, mitral valve prolapse, MVP, rheumatic heart disease, coronary artery disease, CAD, annular calcification, connective tissue disorder, connective-tissue disorder, left ventricle dilation, left ventricle dilatation, LV dilation, LV dilatation, prosthetic heart valve, cardiac valvular lesion, functional ischemic mitral regurgitation

accelerated idioventricular rhythm, AIVR, ventricular arrhythmia, slow ventricular tachycardia, VT, ventricular escape rhythm ,coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, chest pain, breast pang, coronarism, Heberden angina, Rougnon-Heberden disease, unstable angina, stenocardia, myocardial oxygen demand, Prinzmetal angina, atypical angina, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic disease, ischemic heart disease, syndrome X, silent ischemia, angina decubitus, left ventricular dysfunction, microvascular angina, coronary flow reserve, CFR, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, coronary spasm, coronary artery spasm, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, systemic collagen vascular diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, retrosternal chest discomfort, choking sensation, aortic stenosis, Levine sign, xanthelasma, xanthoma, carotid bruit, papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, scleroderma, Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery aneurysm, coronary artery ectasia, coronary artery fibrosis, coronary intimal fibrosis, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, anemia, tachyarrhythmias, hyperthyroidism ,cardiac lesion, juxtaductal coarctation, preductal coarctation, postductal coarctation, vascular malformation, coarctated aortic segment, infective endarteritis, cystic medial necrosis, coarctation of the aorta, narrowing of the aorta, ductus tissue theory, hemodynamic theory, ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, left ventricular outflow obstruction, tubular hypoplasia of the transverse aortic arch, congenital cardiac lesions, XO Turner syndrome, aortic arch hypoplasia, extracardiac vascular anomalies ,aortic stenosis, AS, valvular aortic stenosis, valvular AS, aorta stenosis, aortic valve surgery, heart failure, syncope, angina pectoris, pulsus parvus et tardus, heart valve obstruction, aortic obstruction, aortic valve obstruction, aortic valve replacement, AVR, sudden cardiac death, SCD, calcific embolization, infective endocarditis ,aortitis, Takayasu's arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, pulseless disease, pulselessness, giant cell arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, large vessel arteritis, vasculitis ,aberrant ventricular conduction, aberrant conduction, right bundle-branch block morphology, RBBB morphology, intraventricular conduction abnormality, premature ventricular complexes, PVCs ,MI, transient ischemic attack, TIA, stroke, atheroembolism, coronary heart disease, coronary artery atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery, peripheral vascular disease, ischemia, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, CAD, cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cigarette smoking, hyperhomocystinemia, hyperglycemia, sudden cardiac death, stable angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, mesenteric angina, impotence, nonhealing ulceration, infection of the extremities, paresthesias, visceral ischemia, epigastric pain, periumbilical postprandial pain, pulsatile abdominal mass, digital necrosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, retinal ischemia, cerebral infarction, renal failure, xanthelasma, xanthomata, tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, diminished carotid pulses, carotid artery bruits, focal neurological deficits, decreased peripheral pulses, peripheral arterial bruits, peripheral cyanosis, gangrene, ulceration, peripheral embolism, circulatory collapse, livedo reticularis, cholesterol embolization, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein, CRP, lipoprotein (a) ,AF, atrial flutter, arrhythmia, AFL, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, congestive heart failure, CHF, ventriculartachycardia, VT, ventricular fibrillation, VF, coronary artery disease, CAD, thromboembolic stroke, uncontrolled hypertension, coronary disease, valvular heart disease, acute pulmonary processes, acute pulmonary disease, hyperthyroidism, acute alcohol intoxication, holiday heart, Saturday night heart, illicit narcotic abuse, drug abuse, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic valvular disease, hypertension, diabetes, thromboembolism, recurrent AF, paroxysmal AF, permanent AF, chronic AF, thyrotoxicosis, electrolyte abnormalities, acute ethanol intoxication, atrial premature beats, Holter monitoring, hypertensive heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial cardiomyopathy, Maze procedure, electrical cardioversion, ischemic stroke, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, hepatojugular reflex ,AF, atrial flutter, arrhythmia, AFL, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, congestive heart failure, CHF, ventricular tachycardia, VT, ventricular fibrillation, VF, coronary artery disease, CAD, thromboembolic stroke, percutaneous catheter-based techniques, congenital cardiac anomalies, hypertensive heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, thromboembolic complications, cardiomyopathy, hypoxia, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma ,atrial myxoma, cardiac tumors, heart tumors, familial myxoma syndrome, primary cardiac neoplasms, polypoid mass, myxomatosis, Carney syndrome, NAME syndrome, LAMB syndrome, myxoid neurofibroma, tumor embolism, atrial fibrillation, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenesis, tumor growth ,atrial septal defect, atrial septum, ASD, ostium secundum ASD, sinus venosus defect, ostium primum defect, ostium secundum defect, congenital heart disease, congenital cardiac disorder, ventricular dilatation, thoracic surgery, pulmonary hypertension, Eisenmenger syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, transcatheter occlusion devices, dyspnea, fatigue, palpitations, syncope, congestive heart failure, CHF ,supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, palpitations, PAT, AT, focal atrial tachycardia, macroreentrant tachycardia, macro-reentrant tachycardia, cardiomyopathy, cardiomyopathies, micro-reentrant tachycardia, microreentrant tachycardia, heart palpitations, arrhythmia, tachycardia, multifocal atrial tachycardia, multiform atrial tachycardia ,atrioventricular block, AV block, A-V block, AV nodal dysfunction, AVN dysfunction, AVND, heart block, first-degree AV block, second-degree AV block, third-degree AV block ,atrioventricular dissociation, AV dissociation, A-V dissociation, AV block, A-V block, heart block, complete heart block, bradycardia, tachycardia, AV dyssynchrony, ventricular tachycardia, nonparoxysmal junctional tachycardia, junctional tachycardia, escape junctional rhythm, accelerated idioventricular rhythm ,atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, AVNRT, AV junctional tachycardia, reentrant supraventricular tachycardia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, tachyarrhythmia, arrhythmia, chronic heart disease, rhythm disorder, atrioventricular nodal reentry, AV nodal reentry, premature ventricular stimulation , benign cardiac tumors, cardiac myxoma, heart myxoma, cardiac fibroma, benign cardiac tumor, heart tumor, benign heart tumor, Gorlin syndrome, Gorlin's syndrome, cardiac mass, heart mass, heart fibroma, cardiac neoplasm, benign cardiac neoplasm, heart neoplasm ,Brugada syndrome, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, idiopathic VFib, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, syncope, cardiac arrest, sudden death, sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome, SUNDS, SCN5A mutation, sodium channel blockers, vagotonic agents, alpha-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic blockers, heterocyclic antidepressants, glucose and insulin, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, alcohol intoxication, cocaine intoxication ,left heart cardiac catheterization, left cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, coronary angiogram, left ventriculogram, Judkins technique, heart catheter, Sones method, intracardiac pressure measurement, oxygen saturation, cardiac output, coronary artery disease, myocardial disorders, aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mitral stenosis, mitral insufficiency, cardiomyopathy ,congestive hepatopathy, congestive cirrhosis, congestive liver fibrosis, congestive hepatic fibrosis, chronic passive liver congestion, CPC, congestive heart failure, CHF, centrolobular necrosis, cardiac sclerosis ,cardiac tamponade, pericardial tamponade, reduced ventricular filling, hemodynamic compromise, malignant disease, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, postmyocardial infarction, free wall ventricular rupture, Dressler syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, radiation therapy, antireflux surgery, pneumopericardium , cardiac failure, heart failure, myocardial infarction, MI, ST-elevation MI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, STEMI, non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, NSTEMI, unstable angina, myocardial ischemia, heart attack, cardiac dysfunction, acute myocarditis, sustained arrhythmia, acute valvular catastrophe, end-stage cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, CAD, myocardial pathology, myocardial stunning, hibernating myocardium, systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, valvular dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, mechanical heart complications, left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume curve, curvilinear diastolic pressure-volume curve, shock state, hemodynamic support, vasopressor supportive therapy, inotropic supportive therapy, thrombolytic therapy, intra-aortic balloon pump, ventricular assist device, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting, coronary artery bypass grafting, shock trial ,alcoholism, alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, ethanol consumption, ethanol abuse, ethanol toxicity, alcohol toxicity, cardiovascular disease, CVD, cardiac enlargement, cardiac failure, heart failure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, AC, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular arrhythmia, premature ventricular contractions, sudden death, hypertension, stroke, dilated cardiomyopathy, DC, acute ethanol-induced injury, beriberi heart disease, thiamine deficiency, acetaldehyde, myocarditis ,cocaine cardiomyopathy, cocaine myocarditis, cocaine-induced heart failure, chronic cardiomyopathy, cocaine abuse, cocaine addiction ,congestive cardiomyopathy, heart failure, congestive heart failure, CHF, dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM, cardiac failure, cardiomyopathies, viral DCM, familial DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy, dilatated cardiomyopathy, viral dilated cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, toxic DCM, toxic dilated cardiomyopathy, granulomatous dilated cardiomyopathy, granulomatous DCM, collagen vascular disease DCM, collagen vascular disease dilated cardiomyopathy, carnitine DCM, carnitine dilated cardiomyopathy, carnitine deficiency, tachycardia-induced DCM, tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy, doxorubicin-induced DCM, doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy, sarcoidosis, end-stage heart disease, end stage heart disease, end-stage cardiac disease, end stage cardiac disease ,hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HCM, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, IHSS, muscular subaortic stenosis, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, ASH, sudden death, sudden cardiac death, SCD, arrhythmogenic sudden death, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy ,peripartum cardiomyopathy, PPCM, puerperal cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart disease, cardiac failure, progressive heart failure, arrhythmia, thromboembolism, maternal hypoxia, thromboembolic phenomenon, thyrotoxicosis, mitral stenosis, hypertension, pulmonary edema, low selenium levels, preeclampsia ,restrictive cardiomyopathy, RCM, myocardium, Loeffler's endocarditis, chronic endomyocardial fibrosis, diastolic heart failure, primary amyloidosis, eosinophilic, hemochromatosis, glycogen storage disease ,Carney complex, lentigines, atrial myxomas, mucocutaneous myxomas, blue nevi, LAMB syndrome, nevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibroma, ephelides, NAME syndrome, rhabdomyoma, myxoma, cardiac myxomas, cardiac tumor, heart tumor, cutaneous myxoma, spotty pigmentation of the skin, endocrinopathy, endocrine tumor, nonendocrine tumor ,CSH, hypersensitive carotid reflex, Weiss-Baker syndrome, dizziness, syncope, baroreceptors, cardioinhibitory type of carotid sinus hypersensitivity, vasodepressor type of carotid sinus hypersensitivity, mixed type of carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus baroreceptor stimulation, carotid sinus reflex, spontaneous carotid sinus syndrome, induced carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, coronary artery disease, neurocardiogenic syncope, dementia with Lewy body disease, carotid sinus massage, accidental mechanical manipulation of the carotid sinuses, carotid sinus stimulation ,congenitally corrected transposition, S-transposition, D-transposition, L-transposition, transposition of the great vessels, atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance, congenital heart defect, multiple cardiac morphological abnormalities and conduction defects, congenital heart disease, cardiac anomalies, complete heart block, heart failure due to right ventricular decompensation or tricuspid valve regurgitation, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, atrial situs, ventricular septal defect, conduction system abnormalities, coronary anatomy, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, abnormal tricuspid valve morphology, straddling left AV valve, overriding left AV valve, coarctation of the aorta, interruption of the aortic arch, aortic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, hypoplasia of one ventricle, common arterial trunk, abnormal conduction tissue ,cor pulmonale, right heart failure, right ventricular failure, right ventricular hypertrophy, RVH, right ventricular dilatation, pulmonary hypertension, idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension, cardiopulmonary disease, emphysema, pulmonary thromboembolism, interstitial lung disease, polycythemia vera, sickle cell disease, macroglobulinemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary emboli, exertional dyspnea, syncope with exertion, cor pulmonale, cough, hemoptysis, hoarseness, jaundice, hyperresonance to percussion, diminished breath sounds, wheezing, distant heart sounds, cyanosis, diastolic pulmonary regurgitation murmur, prominent A wave, distended neck veins, right ventricular third heart sound, holosystolic tricuspid insufficiency murmur, pulsatile liver, peripheral edema ,cor triatriatum, heart with 3 atria, triatrial heart, subdivided left atrium, cor triatriatum sinister, cor triatriatum sinistrum, cor triatriatum dexter, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, coarctation of the aorta, common atrioventricular canal, Chiari network, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, left ventricular dilation, right ventricular dilation, pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid regurgitation, persistent left superior vena cava, partial atrioventricular canal defect, complete atrioventricular canal defect, mitral regurgitation, ascending aortic aneurysm ,coronary heart disease, heart disease, cardiac disease, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, heart attack, ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, CAD, chronic coronary artery disease, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, coronary arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, MI, acute myocardial infarction, AMI, acute coronary syndrome, ACS, congestive heart failure, CHF, sudden cardiac arrest, SCA, risk factor modification, coronary artery bypass graft, CABG, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PTCA, atherosclerotic plaque, cholesterol, trans-fatty acids ,digitalis toxicity, atrial fibrillation, cardiac glycoside, congestive heart failure, CHF, digitoxin, digoxin, inotropic agent, inotropy, Digitalis purpurea, Thevetia peruviana, depletion of potassium stores, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency ,Ebstein's anomaly, Ebstein disease, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, WPW syndrome, congenital heart disease, tricuspid regurgitation, tricuspid valve displacement, lithium ingestion during pregnancy, maternal benzodiazepine use, maternal exposure to varnishing substances, right heart failure, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, accessory conduction pathways, multiple pathways, bacterial endocarditis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, prophylaxis, SBE prophylaxis, Ebstein abnormality, bacterial endocarditis, sudden cardiac death , Eisenmenger complex, Eisenmenger defect, Eisenmenger disease, Eisenmenger tetralogy, exercise intolerance, cyanosis, heart failure, hemoptysis, ventricular septal defect, VSD, overriding aorta, congenital cardiac shunt defect, pulmonary hypertension, patent ductus arteriosus, PDA ,mechanical alternans, pulsus alternans, repolarization alternans, conduction and refractoriness alternans, alternans due to cardiac motion, repolarization or conduction abnormality of the Purkinje fibers or myocardium, vasospastic angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, nonvasospastic angina pectoris, congenital long QT syndrome, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, acute pulmonary embolism, cardiac resuscitation, myocardial ischemia, atrial fibrillation, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, rheumatic heart disease, acute pulmonary embolism, myocardial contusion, left ventricular dysfunction, large pericardial effusion, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ,endocardial cushion defects, atrioventricular septal defects, atrioventricular canal defects, AV septal defects, canalis atrioventricularis communis, persistent atrioventricular ostium, abnormal development of endocardial cushions, heart failure, pulmonary vascular disease, congestive heart failure, CHF, ostium primum atrial septal defect, minimal insufficiency of the left AV valveatrial arrhythmia, trisomy 21, Down syndrome,endomyocardial fibrosis, EMF, endomyocardial disease, hypereosinophilic syndrome, obliterative myocardial disease, tropical eosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis, Davies disease, endocardial fibroelastosis, endomyocardial fibroelastosis, Löffler endocarditis, Loeffler endocarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, fibrosis of the endocardial surface of the heart, acute myocarditis, parasites, helminths, protozoans, toxoplasmosis, malaria, eosinophilia, malnutrition, high-tuber diet, cerium toxicity, Ce toxicity, hypomagnesemia, constrictive pericarditis ,first-degree atrioventricular block, AV block, heart block, Lev disease, Lenègre disease, Lenegre disease, His-Purkinje system, atrial depolarization, ventricular depolarization, P wave, QRS complex, His bundle, acute inferior myocardial infarction, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, infranodal block, wide QRS complex, coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, inferior myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, Prinzmetal angina, idiopathic degenerative diseases of the conduction system, mitral valve annulus calcification, aortic valve annulus calcification, infective endocarditis, diphtheria, rheumatic fever, Chagas disease, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, acute myocarditis, collagen vascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, scleroderma, infiltrative diseases, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, myotonic dystrophy, pacemaker syndrome, reversible first-degree AV block, permanent first-degree AV block, atrial septal defect closure, Amplatzer septal occluder, bundle-branch block ,heart failure, congestive heart failure, CHF, myocardial failure, circulatory failure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, RAAS, Frank-Starling mechanism, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac chamber dilatation, neurohumoral systems, adrenergic cardiac nerves, ischemic cardiomyopathy, Chagas disease, hypercapnic respiratory acidosis, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, hypertension, diabetes, breathlessness, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, dyspnea at rest, acute pulmonary edema, intraaortic balloon pumping, IABP, ventricular assist devices, biventricular pacing, cardiac resynchronization, cardiac transplantation, heart transplantation, atrial natriuretic peptide, ANP, B-type natriuretic peptide, BNP, angiotensin II, Ang II, Starling mechanism, Laplace mechanism, systolic heart failure, diastolic heart failure, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-alpha, concentric LV hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, decompensated heart failure, hepatojugular reflux, pulmonary embolism, myocarditis, infective endocarditis, anemia, thyrotoxicosis, myxedema, Paget disease of bone, Albright syndrome, multiple myeloma, cor pulmonale, polycythemia vera, obesity, carcinoid syndrome, ischemic myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cocaine cardiomyopathy, drug-induced cardiomyopathy, idiopathic cardiomyopathy, peripartum cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, preterminal valvular heart disease, terminal ventricular septal defect, terminal atrial septal defect, congenital heart disease, severe aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, acute mitral regurgitation, acute aortic regurgitation, systemic arteriovenous fistulas, hyperthyroidism, beriberi heart disease, Paget disease of bone, Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia, multiple myeloma, glomerulonephritis, cor pulmonale, polycythemia vera, carcinoid syndrome, obesity ,holiday heart syndrome, alcohol-related paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, acute cardiac alcohol toxicity, arrhythmia, alcohol-related cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmic episodes, acute cardiac rhythm disturbance, acute conduction disturbance, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, binge, binge drinking ,Holt-Oram syndrome, heart-hand syndrome, hand-heart syndrome, heart hand syndrome, hand heart syndrome, congenital heart defect, congenital cardiac defect, atrial septal defect, ASD, ventricular septal defect, VSD, thumb abnormality, heart malformation, upper limb malformation, pseudothalidomide syndrome, carpal bone malformation, carpal bone fusion, carpal bone abnormality, inherited cardiovascular disease, inherited heart disease, inherited cardiac disease, Eisenmenger syndrome ,left ventricular hypertrophy, LVH, congestive heart failure, CHF, hypertension, high blood pressure, hyperpiesis, hyperpiesia, angina, myocardial infarction, MI, heart attack, coronary artery disease, conduction system diseases, systolic dysfunction of myocardium, diastolic dysfunction of myocardium, cardiac arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, chronic hypertension, valvular disease, aortic root dilatation, aortic insufficiency, aortic regurgitation, aortic sclerosis, mitral regurgitation, myocardial ischemia, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, sudden cardiac death, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, stroke, myocardial fibrosis, LV diastolic dysfunction, LV systolic dysfunction, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, acute pulmonary edema, acute coronary syndrome, syncope, essential hypertension, renal artery stenosis, polycystic kidney disease, chronic renal failure, intrarenal vasculitis, primary hyperaldosteronism, acromegaly, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, coarctation of aorta, Paget disease, patent ductus arteriosus, atrioventricular fistula, beriberi, thyrotoxicosis, isolated systolic hypertension, sleep apnea, raised intracranial pressure, truncal obesity, renal artery bruit, renal artery stenosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, hepatomegaly, hypertensive retinopathy ,implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, ICD, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, VT, ventricular fibrillation, VF, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, electrograms, electrophysiology, electrophysiologic studies, EPS ,isolated coronary artery anomalies, anomalous origin of epicardial coronary arteries, anomalous course of epicardial coronary arteries, anomalous termination of epicardial coronary arteries, congenital stenosis of the epicardial coronary arteries, atresia of the coronary arteries ,junctional rhythm, accelerated junctional tachycardia, junctional bradycardia, tachycardia, atrioventricular block, AV block, bradycardia, sick sinus syndrome, sinus node dysfunction, heart block, complete heart block, digitalis toxicity, digoxin toxicity ,Libman-Sacks endocarditis, endocarditis, nonbacterial verrucous endocarditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE, autoimmune disease, cardiac manifestations of autoimmune disease, verrucous vegetations, Libman-Sacks vegetations, heart valve abnormality, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, cardiac failure, cardiac vegetations ,endomyocardial fibrosis, Loeffler disease, Loeffler syndrome, restrictive cardiomyopathy, eosinophilia, eosinophilic myocarditis, thromboembolism, acute heart failure, hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic leukemia, eosinophilic endocardial disease, eosinophilic arteritis, myocarditis, eosinophilic endomyocardial disease, idiopathic eosinophilic endomyocarditis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, HES, posterior myocardial infarction, acute myocardial infarction, aortic valve regurgitation secondary to valve fibrosis and fibrotic vegetations on the aortic valve, amyloidosis, eosinophilic proliferation, peripheral eosinophilia, Loeffler endocarditis ,long QT syndrome, LQTS, congenital long QT syndrome, Romano-Ward syndrome, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, JLN syndrome, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, syncope, cardiac arrest, sudden death, Anderson syndrome, Timothy syndrome ,Lown-Gangong-Levine syndrome, LGL syndrome, enhanced atrioventricular nodal conduction, accelerated atrioventricular nodal conduction, short PR/normal QRS syndrome, short PR/narrow QRS syndrome ,Lutembacher's syndrome, ASD, mitral valve lesion, atrial septal defect, mitral stenosis, left-to-right atrial shunt, mitral insufficiency, mixed lesion, congenital atrial septal defect, iatrogenic atrial septal defect, congenital mitral stenosis, acquired mitral stenosis, rheumatic mitral valve disease, mitral valvuloplasty, restenosis of the mitral valve, rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic mitral stenosis, pulmonary congestion, rheumatic fever, right-sided heart failure, right heart failure, pulmonary venous congestion, atrial septal defect closure, mitral commissurotomy closure, mitral valve replacement, atrial arrhythmias ,mitral regurgitation, MR, mitral incompetence, mitral insufficiency, myxomatous degeneration, ruptured chordae tendineae, collagen-vascular disease, collagen vascular disease, rheumatic fever, myxomatous mitral valve, Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, acute mitral valve regurgitation, mitral valve regurgitation, mitral valve incompetence, mitral valve insufficiency, cardiogenic shock, mitral valve disease, mitral valvular abnormality, prosthetic valve failure, perforated mitral valve leaflet, perforated mitral valve, mitral valve prolapse, MVP, rheumatic heart disease, coronary artery disease, CAD, annular calcification, connective tissue disorder, connective-tissue disorder, left ventricle dilation, left ventricle dilatation, LV dilation, LV dilatation, prosthetic heart valve, cardiac valvular lesion, functional ischemic mitral regurgitation ,mitral stenosis, mitral valve stenosis, MVS, chronic rheumatic disease, congenital mitral stenosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, RA, metabolism disorder, congenital metabolic disorder, metabolic disorder, Fabry's disease, Fabry disease, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, valve calcification, mitral valve calcification, infective endocarditis, carcinoid syndrome, acute rheumatic fever, ARF, congestive heart failure, CHF, heart disease, cardiac disease, amyloid deposition, amyloid, tricuspid regurgitation, hemoptysis ,mitral valve prolapse, MVP, myxomatous mitral valve, floppy mitral valve syndrome, Barlow's syndrome, Barlow syndrome, billowing mitral cusp syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, myxomatous mitral valve, redundant cusp syndrome, irritable heart, effort syndrome, soldier's heart, isolated mitral regurgitation, MVP syndrome ,MAT, chaotic atrial rhythm, chaotic atrial tachycardia, chaotic atrial mechanism, repetitive paroxysmal multifocal atrial tachycardia, intracellular calcium overload, catecholamine excess, phosphodiesterase inhibition, acidosis, hypoxemia, electrolyte imbalances associated with severe underlying illnesses, COPD, congestive heart failure, metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus, hypokalemia, azotemia, postoperative infections, sepsis, pulmonary embolism, respiratory acidosis, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, hypomagnesemia, azotemia, multifocal atrial rhythm, multifocal atrial bradycardia, wandering atrial pacemaker ,acute coronary syndromes, ACS, MI, heart attack, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, non–ST-elevation MI, NSTEMI, coronary artery disease, CAD, ischemic heart disease, chest pain, impaired systolicfunction, impaired diastolic function, myocardial necrosis, atherosclerosis, coronary thrombus, plaque rupture, coronary emboli, infected cardiac valve, coronary occlusion secondary to vasculitis, primary coronary vasospasm, variant angina, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, CHF, coronary heart disease, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, elevated homocysteine levels, male pattern baldness, sedentary lifestyle, psychosocial stress, peripheral vascular disease, poor oral hygiene, vasculitis, congenital coronary anomalies, coronary trauma, coronary spasm, necrosis of heart muscle,coronary thrombosis, pulmonary rales, lower extremity edema, elevated jugular venous pressure, cocaine use, heavy exertion, hyperthyroidism, severe anemia ,myocardial ischemia, ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, angina, silent ischemia, unstable angina, UA, demand ischemia, supply ischemia, coronary heart disease, CHD, coronary artery disease, CAD, myocardial infarction, MI, congestive heart failure, CHF, metabolic syndrome, myocardial oxygen consumption, MVO2, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, antiplatelet therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, PCIs, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PTCA, brachytherapy, coronary atherectomy, ablative laser-assisted angioplasty, catheter-based thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, percutaneous valvuloplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, CABS, CABG, beating heart surgery, open heart surgery, minimal incision, coronary bypass, MIDCAB, transmyocardial laser revascularization, TMLR, percutaneous TMLR, PTMLR, plethysmography/extracorporeal counterpulsation, ECCP, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation, IABCP, chronic stable angina, coronary vasospasm, subendocardial ischemia, coronary steal phenomenon, coronary stenosis, coronary collateral circulation, angiogenesis, silent ischemia, silent myocardial ischemia, ST-segment depression, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, high lipoprotein a levels, chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, sudden cardiac arrest, stable angina pectoris, arrhythmias, transient ST-segment depression, ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, acute pulmonary edema, ischemic myocardial dysfunction, acute valvular heart disease, coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein level, elevated LDL level, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, low HDL cholesterol level, elevated triglyceride level, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, dysmetabolic syndrome, hyperhomocystinemia, high iron level, high Lp(a) level, graft atherosclerosis, restenosis, postcardiac transplant CAD, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Herpes simplex virus ,myocardial rupture, acute myocardial infarction, AMI, blunt cardiac trauma, penetrating cardiac trauma, primary cardiac infection, primary cardiac tumors, secondary cardiac tumors, aortic dissection, pericardial tamponade, ventricular septal defect, VSD, acute mitral regurgitation, MR, pseudoaneurysm ,myocardium, Fiedler myocarditis, giant cell myocarditis, myocardial infarction, MI, heart failure, arrhythmia, fulminant myocarditis, acute myocarditis, chronic active myocarditis, chronic persistent myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, myocyte destruction, viral myocarditis, postpartum cardiomyopathy, lymphocytic myocarditis, acute decompensation of heart failure, sarcoid myocarditis, acute rheumatic fever, hypersensitive myocarditis, eosinophilic myocarditis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, posttransplant cellular rejection, systemic inflammatory disease, right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy, EMB ,pacemaker crosstalk, self-inhibition, far-field sensing, myopotential sensing, pacemaker lead fractures, electromagnetic interference, dual-mode, dual-pacing, dual-sensing pacemakers, DDD pacemakers, dual-chamber pacemakers, ventricular safety pacing, VSP ,pacemaker malfunction, pacing system malfunction, heart pacing malfunction, pacemaker complication, pacemaker syndrome, pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, twiddler's syndrome, cardiac pacing, heart pacing, broken pacemaker, failed pacemaker, malfunctioning pacemaker, runaway pacemaker ,pacemaker syndrome, subclinical pacemaker syndrome, pseudopacemaker syndrome, atrioventricular dyssynchrony, AV dyssynchrony, arrhythmia, ventricular pacing ,pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, PMT, reentrant tachycardia, reentrant arrhythmia circuit, endless-loop tachycardia ,PSVT, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, multifocal atrial tachycardia, MAT, tachyarrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, AF, conduction pathway disturbance, conduction pathway abnormality, conduction pathway anomaly, dysrhythmia, heart condition, heart rhythm problem, atrial tachyarrhythmia, atrioventricular tachyarrhythmia, AV tachyarrhythmia, sinus tachycardia, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, IST, sinus nodal reentrant tachycardia, SNRT, atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, AV tachyarrhythmias, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, AVNRT, atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, AV reentrant tachycardia, AVRT, junctional ectopic tachycardia, JET, nonparoxysmal junctional tachycardia, NPJT, heart failure, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, syncope, sudden death, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, WPW syndrome ,patent ductus arteriosus, PDA, congenital heart surgery, descending thoracic aorta, fetal ductus arteriosus, fetal nutritive blood flow, cardiac anomalies, heart anomalies, left-to-right shunting, Gianturco coils, Rashkind ductus occlusion device, indomethacin, Indocin, Eisenmenger syndrome, heart murmur, cyanosis ,PFO, paradoxical embolism, atrial septum primum, atrial septum secundum, fossa ovalis, atrial septal aneurysm, right-to-left shunt, stroke, transient ischemic event, Valsalva maneuver, atrial septal aneurysm, cryptogenic stroke, paradoxical embolization ,percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PTCA, coronary artery disease, CAD, bare metal stent, BMS, coronary artery bypass surgery, CABG, unstable angina, drug-eluting stents, DES, myocardial infarction, MI, percutaneous coronary interventions, PCI, target vessel revascularization, TVR, rotational atherectomy, directional coronary atherectomy, laser atherectomy, balloon angioplasty, intracoronary stents, stable angina, surgical revascularization, coronary angioplasty, fibrinolytic therapy, primary angioplasty, primary PCI ,pericardial effusion, pericardial sac, dropsy of pericardium, pericarditis, pericardial tamponade, pericardiocentesis, pericardioscopy, malignant pericardial effusion, leukemia, lymphoma, idiopathic effusions, Beck triad of pericardial tamponade, hypotension, muffled heart sounds, jugular venous distension, pulsus paradoxus, pericardial friction rub, hepatojugular reflux, Ewart sign, hepatosplenomegaly, cyanosis, hydropericardium, congestive heart failure, valvular disease, mediastinal lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, metastatic breast cancer, bacterial pericardial effusion, viral pericardial effusion, tuberculous pericardial effusion, parasitic pericardial effusion, HIV-related pericardial effusion, fungal pericardial effusion, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, vasculitides, uremia, postpericardiotomy syndrome, chylopericardium, myxedema, radiation-induced pericardial effusion ,pericardiocentesis, percutaneous pericardiocentesis, echo-guided pericardiocentesis, pericardial tap, pericardial disease, heart disease, cardiac disease, cardiac procedure, pericardial effusion, pericardial fluid, hemopericardium, chylopericardium, pneumopericardium, tension pneumopericardium ,acute pericarditis, pericardial disease, pericardium, heart disease, cardiac disease, inflamed pericardium, pericardial inflammation, chest pain, pericardial friction rub, heart infection, cardiac infection, pericardial infection, tuberculosis, bacterial heart infection, viral heart infection, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus erythematosus, SLE, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, rheumatic fever, renal failure, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, cholesterol pericarditis, myocardial infarction, Dressler syndrome, cardiac neoplasm, pericardiocentesis ,constrictive pericarditis, pericardium, acute pericarditis, chronic pericarditis, pericarditis, diastolic filling, restrictive cardiomyopathy, calcific constrictive pericarditis, pericardial effusion, pericardial organization, chronic fibrotic scarring, calcification, restricted cardiac filling, idiopathic pericarditis, infectious pericarditis, radiation-induced pericarditis, postsurgical pericarditis, post–myocardial infarction pericarditis, Kussmaul sign, tuberculosis, tuberculous pericarditis, postradiation constrictive pericarditis, cardiac surgery, pericardiectomy, pericardial constriction, viral pericarditis, coxsackievirus A, Coxsackievirus B, echoviruses, adenoviruses, purulent pericarditis, coronary artery bypass grafting, neoplasms, uremia, connective tissue disorders, drug-induced pericarditis, chylopericardium, bacterial pericarditis, fungal pericarditis ,transudative pericardial effusion, exudative pericardial effusion, sanguineous pericardial effusion, chylous pericardial effusion, chronic effusive pericarditis, visceral pericardial constriction, constrictive pericarditis ,programmed electrical stimulation, electrophysiologic studies, electrophysiologic study, EPS, EP studies, electrophysiological studies, electrophysiological study, PES, noninvasive programmed electrical stimulation, NIPS, electrophysiology study, electrophysiology, cardiac electrophysiology, cardiac rhythm disturbance, rhythm disturbance, arrhythmia, acute myocardial ischemia, electrolyte disturbance, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, WPW syndrome, long QT syndrome, MI, myocardial infarction, cardiac conduction system, cardiac workup, cardiac evaluation, heart workup, heart work up, cardiac work up ,swan-ganz catheterization, pulmonary artery catheterization, PAC, SGC, right heart catheterization, hemodynamic monitoring, pulmonary artery catheter, PA catheter, acute myocardial infarction, AMI, flow-directed balloon-tipped pulmonary artery catheter, primary pulmonary hypertension, PPH, valvular disease, intracardiac shunts, cardiac tamponade, pulmonary embolus, PE, multiorgan system failure, severe burns, aspiration of air emboli, heart pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, wedge pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, hypovolemic shock, cardiogenic shock, cardiomyopathy, acute mitral regurgitation, acute ventricular septal defect, septic shock, pericardial tamponade, cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, cardiac output ,PE, pulmonary edema, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, pulmonary edema cardiogenic, CPE, congestive heart failure, CHF, decompensated heart failure, heart failure, increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, increased capillary permeability, decreased plasma oncotic pressure, lymphatic obstruction, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, NCPE ,pulmonary regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonic insufficiency, pulmonary insufficiency, right ventricle, right ventricular outflow, retrograde flow, right-sided volume overload, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy, connective-tissue disease, infective endocarditis, carcinoid heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, Graham Steell murmur, Marfan syndrome ,pulmonic stenosis, pulmonary valve stenosis, PS, peripheral pulmonic stenosis, PPS, congenital heart anomalies, valvular PS, atrial septal defect, ASD, ventricular septal defect, VSD, patent ductus arteriosus, congenital heart disease, congenital heart defect ,electromechanical dissociation, EMD, PEA, pseudo-PEA ,RFCA, radiofrequency ablation, catheter ablation, tachyarrhythmias, tachycardias, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia, ORT, unifocal atrial tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, VT, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, WPW syndrome, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, AVNRT, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, idiopathic ventricular tachycardia,right ventricle infarction, RVI, myocardial infarction, MI, right ventricular dysfunction, right coronary artery occlusion ,saphenous vein graft aneurysm, SVGA, aortocoronary saphenous vein graft aneurysms, saphenous vein graft aneurysm disease, coronary artery disease, CAD, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, coronary artery revascularization, saphenous vein graft aneurysmal dilatation, myocardial infarction, ischemia, mediastinitis, angina, beta-blockers ,second-degree atrioventricular block, heart block, 2nd degree heart block, second-degree AV block, 2nd degree AV block, AV block, Mobitz AV block, Mobitz heart block, Mobitz type I, Mobitz type II, Wenckebach phenomenon, Wenckebach heart block, high-grade AV block, complete heart block, third-degree AV block, Stokes-Adams syncopal attack, heart failure, angina, acute myocardial infarction, sinus slowing, cardioactive drugs, endocarditis, myocarditis, Lyme disease, acute rheumatic fever, amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, Addison disease, ankylosing spondylitis, dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, Reiter syndrome, progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the cardiac skeleton, aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement surgery, muscular dystrophies, corrective congenital heart surgery ,SND, sinoatrial disease, sinoatrial dysfunction, sick sinus syndrome, sluggish sinus syndrome, sinus nodal dysfunction, Valsalva maneuver, carotid sinus massage, idiopathic degenerative disease, coronary artery disease, autonomic hyperactivity, intrinsic sinus nodal dysfunction, infiltrative diseases, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, collagen vascular diseases, congenital heart disease, heart transplant, musculoskeletal disorders, myocarditis, pericarditis, beta-blockers, nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, cardiac glycosides, sympatholytic antihypertensives, membrane-active antiarrhythmics, autonomic dysfunction, vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus syndrome, extrinsic sinus nodal dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothermia, sepsis ,sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, SVA, Marfan syndrome, supracristal perimembranous ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, aortic regurgitation, pulmonary stenosis, coarctation, atrial septal defects, Gerbode defect, cardiac tamponade, aortic media, annulus fibrosus, atherosclerotic aneurysm, syphilis, endocarditis, cystic medial necrosis, chest trauma, deficiency of normal elastic tissue, abnormal development of the bulbus cordis, heart failure syndrome, infective endocarditis, atherosclerosis, ventricular septal defect, aortic insufficiency, coarctation ,cardiac arrest, cardiovascular collapse, sudden death, sudden cardiac death, SCD, cardiac arrhythmias, heart attack, cardiac disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, CAD, CHF, ventricular fibrillation, bradyarrhythmia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HCM, cardiomyopathy, Brugada syndrome, ischemic heart disease, ischemia, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, MI ,synchronized electrical cardioversion, defibrillation, ventricular dysrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, synchronized direct current shocks, VF, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, PSVT, ventricular tachycardia, VT, defibrillators, implanted cardioverter/defibrillators, ICDs, transesophageal echocardiography, TEE, radiofrequency catheter ablation ,syncope, loss of consciousness, loss of postural tone, decreased cerebral perfusion, brainstem hypoxia, carotid sinus pressure, coronary artery disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, congenital long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, WPW syndrome, Brugada syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, syncopal episode, blackout, dizzy spell, seizure, dizziness, aortic stenosis, pulmonary embolus, pulmonary hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, acute MI, tamponade, aortic dissection, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, torsades de pointes, ventricular tachycardia, VT, ventricular fibrillation, AV block, atrioventricular block, A/V block, A-V block, sick sinus syndrome, implanted cardioverter/defibrillators, ICDs ,tetralogy of Fallot, TOF, Fallot tetrad, pink tetralogy, wooden-shoe heart, boot-shaped heart, coeur en sabot, sabot heart, congenital heart disorders, CHD, congestive heart failure, CHF, cyanosis, cyanotic heart disorder, congenital cardiac defects, ventricular septal defect, VSD, atrial septal defect, ASD, pulmonic valve atresia, pulmonic valve stenosis, infundibular stenosis, dextroposition of the aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary atresia, paradoxical emboli, stroke, pulmonary embolus, subacute bacterial endocarditis, right ventricle outflow tract obstruction, RVOTO, cardiopulmonary bypass, CPB, Blalock-Taussig shunt, pentad of Fallot, cleft lip, cleft palate, hypospadias, pentalogy of Fallot ,third-degree atrioventricular block, third-degree AV block, AV block, heart block, complete AV block, complete heart block, first-degree AV block, 3rd degree heart block, third-degree heart block, cardiomyopathy, mitral calcification, aortic calcification, endocarditis, sudden cardiac death, SCD, Lenègre disease, Lev disease, rheumatic fever, myocarditis, Chagas disease, Lyme borreliosis, Aspergillus myocarditis, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, tumors, Hodgkin disease, multiple myeloma, Becker muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, MI, hypoxia, hyperkalemia, AV dissociation, atrioventricular dissociation, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, ICD, neuromuscular disease, myotonic dystrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, iatrogenic heart block ,torsade de pointes, quinidine syncope, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, VT, prolonged QT interval, arrhythmia, TdP, torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, TdPVT, ventricular fibrillation, early after depolarization, EAD, afterdepolarization, arrhythmia, torsades de pointes, torsades, torsade, sudden cardiac death, SCD, sudden death, ventricular fibrillation, tachyarrhythmia ,preoperative testing, diagnostic testing, stress test, exercise stress test, cardiovascular testing, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, CAD, standardized exercise protocol, functional capacity, hemodynamic response, diagnostic exercise variables, prognostic exercise variables, ischemic heart disease, IHD, stable chest pain, adenosine, dobutamine, dipyridamole, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, CPET, pharmacologic stress testing, pharmacologic stress test, stress test post-MI, postmyocardial infarction stress test ,tricuspid atresia, TA, cyanotic congenital heart disease, tricuspid valve, right atrium, right ventricle, ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, cyanosis, hypoxemia, congestive heart failure, bacterial endocarditis, brain abscess, digital clubbing, polycythemia, Blalock-Taussig shunt, Glenn shunt, Fontan procedure, Fontan operation, transposition of the great vessels, pulmonary obstruction, d-transposed great arteries, FOG2 gene, polycythemia ,tricuspid regurgitation, tricuspid valve, leaflets, chordae tendinea, annulus, papillary muscles, adjacent right ventricular muscle, intrinsic abnormality of the valve apparatus, tricuspid insufficiency, Ebstein's anomaly, Ebstein anomaly, tricuspid stenosis, chronic right atrial overload, right-sided congestive heart failure, CHF, hepatic congestion, peripheral edema, ascites, hypoxemia, cyanosis, polycythemia, rheumatic valvular disease, carcinoid, bacterial endocarditis, Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, porcine heterograft, rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, papillary muscle dysfunction, connective-tissue disease, dilatation of the right ventricular cavity, mitral stenosis, pulmonic stenosis, pulmonary hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy, right ventricular failure, left-sided heart failure, organic disease of the tricuspid valve, mitral valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid valve endocarditis ,tricuspid stenosis, tricuspid valve, rheumatic heart disease, mitral stenosis, carcinoid, Ebstein anomaly, tricuspid valve dysfunction, myocardium aberrations, stenotic tricuspid valves, rheumatic fever, carcinoid syndrome, endocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, lupus, congenital tricuspid atresia, rheumatic fever, congenital tricuspid stenosis, atrial fibrillation, peripheral edema, ascites, congenital abnormalities, metabolic abnormalities, enzymatic abnormalities, active infective endocarditis, rheumatic tricuspid stenosis, carcinoid heart disease, infective endocarditis, Fabry disease, giant blood cysts, supravalvular obstruction from congenital diaphragms, intracardiac tumor, extracardiac tumor, thrombosis, emboli, large endocarditis vegetations ,UA, acute coronary syndrome, ACS, preinfarction angina, intermediate coronary syndrome, accelerated angina, crescendo angina, myocardial infarction, MI, chest pain, heart attack, coronary disease, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, HOCM, microvascular disease, atherosclerotic plaque, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, new-onset angina, accelerating angina, rest angina, early postinfarct angina, early postrevascularization angina, non–Q-wave myocardial infarction, non–Q-wave MI, NQMI, non-STEMI, NSTEMI ,ventricular fibrillation, VFib, VF, sudden cardiac death, SCD, ventricular flutter, ventricular arrhythmia, automatic external defibrillators, AEDs, coronary artery disease, CAD, myocardial infarction, MI, premature ventricular contractions, PVCs, congestive heart failure, CHF, anoxic encephalopathy, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, atherosclerosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HCM, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, valvular heart disease, aortic stenosis, cystic medial necrosis, sinus node artery obstruction, commotio cordis, torsade de pointes, syncope, Brugada syndrome, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ICD, right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia, RVOT tachycardia, exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia, adenosine-sensitive ventricular tachycardia, repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, radiofrequency catheter ablation, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, aortic cystic medial necrosis, wall-motionabnormalities, WMAs, revascularization, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR, advanced cardiac life support, ACLS, coronary artery bypass grafting, CABG ,ventricular premature complexes, ventricular extrasystole, ventricular ectopic beats, benign ventricular arrhythmia, missed beats, VPC, PVC, premature ventricular complex, VPD, ventricular premature depolarization, VPB, ventricular premature beat, ventricular arrhythmia, beta-blockers, myocardial infarction, MI, postmyocardial infarction, post-MI, congestive heart failure, CHF, coronary artery disease, CAD, ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardia, VT ,ventricular septal defect, VSD, congenital cardiac anomalies, cardiac defects, cardiac malformations, Swiss cheese septum, pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR, ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic circulation, QP/QS, ventricular septum, pulmonary vascular disease, Eisenmenger complex, Eisenmenger syndrome, congestive cardiac failure, pulmonary vascular obstruction, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, CHF, exertional dyspnea, chest pain, syncope, hemoptysis, cyanosis, clubbing, polycythemia, holosystolic murmur, bacterial endocarditis, left heart failure, muscular hypertrophy, viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia ,VT, ischemic heart disease, ventricular fibrillation, VF, monomorphic VT, polymorphic VT, long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, idiopathic VF, Brugada syndrome, familial adrenergic polymorphic VT, bradycardia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Chagas disease, right ventricular dysplasia, torsade de pointes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary artery disease, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia ,Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, preexcitation syndrome, pre-excitation syndrome, atrio-ventricular re-entrant tachycardia, atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, AVRT, AVNRT, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, WPW syndrome, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, PSVT, supraventricular tachycardia, SVT, heart disease